Skin Cleansers
  • Sun, 08/13/2017 - 05:06

There is a the wide assortment of cleansers. There are milk-type cleansers and rinseable detergent-type foaming cleansers, and there are some specialty cleansers for acne- and clog-prone skin. Let’s talk about rinseable cleansers first. Rinseable cleansers usually come in a tube, sometimes in a bottle. They vary in strength and texture. Rinseable cleansers are important to carry because you will find that many clients are used to washing their faces with bar soap. They like the foaming action and do not “feel clean” unless they have “washed” their faces.

Product Profile: Rinseable Cleanser for Oily and Combination Skin

Client and Skin Type
The first rinseable cleanser we look at a rinseable cleanser for oily and combination skin. Clients with oily and combination skin are especially fond of rinseable cleansers because these clients need some detergent to help cut excess amounts of oil. However, we don’t want our cleanser to over dry the skin or strip the acid mantle.

Product Characteristics
This particular cleanser is in a tube. The product consistency feels almost like soap. When the client adds water, it begins to foam moderately. It rinses completely, leaving the skin feeling fresh and clean but not too tight. This feeling of clean but not tight is a good sign that the product has the right amount of detergent ingredient for the skin type.

Chemical Action and Design Chemically, this product uses disodium lauryl sulfosuccinate as a detergent–surfactant. It also contains smaller amounts of avocado oil and cetyl-alcohol, emollient ingredients added to cut the detergent action on the skin’s surface so that it is not stripping. This cleanser is also fragrance- free, a helpful characteristic when treating sensitive skin. This cleanser is a good recommendation for adult oily and combination skin or for clients who are used to heavier moisturizers but really need to switch to a lighter program for oily or combination skin (Figure 11-3A).

Product Profile: Rinseable Cleanser for Dry and Combination Skin

Client and Skin Type This rinseable cleanser is designed for clients who have dry skin but still want the action of a detergent cleanser. This cleanser is good for a mature client with dry skin who is used to using soap over milk cleanser. Of course, many soaps can be over drying, and we would prefer this client use a non-soap, rinseable wash.

Product Characteristics This rinseable cleanser is also packaged in a tube. It foams very slightly. It rinses well but leaves the skin feeling very soft. This cleanser is not aggressive enough for oily–combination skin. However, for more alipidic skin, it is excellent.

Chemical Action and Design If you look at the ingredient label of this product, you will notice that its detergent agent, sodium lauryl sulfate, is listed about halfway down the list of ingredients. This means the product is not nearly as strong a cleanser as the first cleanser we discussed. The ingredients listed, after water, are different types of emollients, fatty alcohols, and esters. This cleanser contains lots of emollients because it is designed for dry skin. The large amounts of emollients keep the detergents from stripping too much lipid from the skin’s surface. This product is super fatted

Product Profile: Rinseable Cleanser for Very Oily Skin

Client and Skin Type This stronger rinseable cleanser is designed for clients who have very oily skin. Their skin is covered with enlarged pores, and they almost never have any dryness or dehydration. This type of client’s skin is extremely oily by 10 or 11 o’clock in the morning.

Product Characteristics This cleanser is a liquid in a bottle. It has almost the consistency of shampoo. It foams quite strongly and rinses thoroughly, leaving the skin feeling very clean. It is much too strong for any skin type except extremely oily skin.

Chemical Action and Design The active detergent in this rinseable cleanser is an anionic surfactant called ammonium laureth sulfate. This cleanser contains some glycolic acid, which, in a cleanser, is helpful in loosening surface cells. Glycolic and other alpha hydroxy acids can be used in cleansers but, of course, are rinsed off and do not have the same long-term conditioning effects as AHAs that are used in leave-on products. This cleanser is mixed with gelling agents to form shampoo-like consistency. The surfactant concentration in a cleanser such as this is somewhat higher than other rinseable detergent cleansers that are designed for less oily skins. This product contains no emollients, and therefore it has no buffer against stripping oil from the skin’s surface. However, this is appropriate for a cleanser designed for very oily skin.


Product Profile: Rinseable Medicated Cleanser for Acne

Client and Skin Type This rinseable cleanser, which is actually a drug, is made for mild to moderate acne, excessively oily, and chronic acne-prone skin. This skin type is not sensitive and is fairly thick, due to the accumulation of corneo- cytes on the surface of the skin. This client may have a currently active acne condition or may tend to develop moderate acne frequently. This product may also be excellent for teenage acne.

Product Characteristics This cleanser is very similar to the one designed for chronically oily skin, except that it contains an antimicrobial agent to kill bacteria. Medicated cleansers like this are over-the-counter (OTC) drugs (see Chapter 12, Claims in Cosmetics). It is a strong foaming cleanser. It may also be formulated as an exfoliant, depending on the ingredients.

Chemical Action and Design Benzoyl peroxide may serve as the antimicrobial in a product like this, or another antimicrobial such as salicylic acid or sulfur may be used. Benzoyl peroxide (see Chapter 15, Acne and the Esthetician) is also a keratolytic agent, as is salicylic acid, which lightly peels away dead corneocytes from the surface of the skin and flushes the follicular canal. Some products like this cleanser may also contain a mechanical exfoliant, such as polyethylene granules. These small, bead-like granules are used in the cleanser because they are gritty and literally “bump off” dead-cell buildup.

Next, as we move down the shelf from the rinseable cleanser, we notice a variety of milk cleansers in several different colors. A closer look reveals that these cleansers are designed for a variety of skin types.


Product Profile: Milk Cleanser for Oily and Combination Skin

Client and Skin Type This milk cleanser is an emulsion to be used for makeup removal on oily and combination skin. Milk cleanser for acne and extremely oily skin is rarely used, at least not by itself. For acne, a milk cleanser may be used strictly as a makeup remover, followed by a rinseable detergent cleanser for extra cleansing action. This cleansing milk is a good choice for the mature client with oily or combination skin who has a tendency toward oiliness and minor but persistent breakout problems. This type of client may find twice- daily cleansings with detergents to be too dehydrating. Older skin tends to dehydrate much more easily than younger skin. This skin type may use a rinse- able foaming cleanser in the morning and then a gentler milk cleanser for nightly makeup removal.

Product Characteristics This cleansing milk is a water-based fluid. It is slightly slippery to the touch and leaves the skin feeling fairly clean when removed. This product should be applied and removed with a room-temperature, damp sponge cloth or cleansing sponge. Use a very soft cloth to apply and remove all milk cleansers, because they do not contain much detergent, if any, and do not rinse as easily as detergent cleansers. This cleanser, however, rinses well when used with a sponge or sponge cloth. Makeup is removed very easily with this product. This product should not be used on the eyes, because it is designed for oily and combination skin and is not chemically appropriate for the eye area.


Chemical Action and Design: The emollients used in this cleanser are tridecyl stearate, neopentylglycol dicaprate/dicaprylate, and tridecyl trimellitate, which are a complex of emollients designed to be a noncomedogenic oil replacement. They do not clog the skin and are easily removed from the skin. The emollients mix with the dirt, makeup, and oils and work to dissolve these foreign materials so they may be removed from the skin’s surface. This product has a pH of about 7.0, typical of a cleanser designed for oily and combination skin. The slightly higher pH helps the cleanser be a more aggressive solvent. The cleansing process should be followed by a low-pH toner to lower the pH and remove any film left from the emollient.


Product Profile: Cleansing Milk for Combination Skin

Client and Skin Type This thicker cleansing emulsion is made for clients who wear heavier makeup and therefore need an oilier cleanser to dissolve the thicker, oilier makeup. This cleanser is often prescribed for mature clients with combination skin. It is considerably heavier than many other cleansing milks. This cleanser may also be used frequently by actors and other performers who wear heavier stage makeup routinely.

Product Characteristics This cleanser is a thicker liquid in a bottle. It absolutely must be used with a sponge or a soft cloth. Otherwise, it would leave a residue on the skin. Its emollients dissolve makeup very readily, making it an excellent product for heavy makeup wearers. This product should be followed by a toner designed for combination skin. The toner needs to be strong enough to remove any residue left from this cleanser.

Chemical Action and Design Petrolatum and mineral oil are the secrets of the slipperiness of this cleanser. There is enough emulsifier in this product to make it relatively thick. The petrolatum makes the product physically heavy. Mineral oil mixed with petrolatum is an excellent makeup dissolver. Plant extracts have been added to this product for soothing.



Product Profile: Cleansing Milk for Sensitive Skin

Client and Skin Type This lightweight milk cleanser is designed for sensitive skin. It is designed for the client with thin, fragile skin that reddens easily. It is not specifically designed for oily skin; its emollient content is intended more for dry, irritated skin. The client who has sensitive, thin skin can use this
product.

Product Characteristics This is a lightweight cleansing milk designed to be used with a soft cloth or sponge. It does not leave much residue when rinsed and has very little fragrance. It removes liquid makeup well.

Chemical Action and Design This water-based cleanser combines a relatively large amount of water with a mixture of emollients to dissolve makeup. It does not contain a traditional emulsifier. It is a physical emulsion, blended by homog- enization. As we have discussed in Chapter 9, Cosmetic Chemistry and Functional Ingredients, traditional emulsifiers can impair barrier function when used on sensitive skin, thus increasing reactivity. Using cleansers that are physically emulsifed does not further damage an already thin barrier. This cleanser contains azulene, bisabolol, and chamomile extract, which are included for their soothing properties. No fragrance is used because of allergy potentials. The only fragrance is from the plant extract used.


Product Profile: Cleansing Milk for Dry Skin

Client and Skin Type Dry, mature skin will benefit from the use of this fairly lightweight milk designed for this specific skin type.

Product Characteristics Again, this product should be applied and removed with a damp, soft cloth. This cleanser is slightly richer to the touch than the other milk cleansers we looked at. It does leave a residue if not carefully removed, and it should be used with a toner designed for dry skin.

Chemical Action and Design The ultra-rich emollient oils in this cleanser are added to help condition the surface of the skin while cleansing, thus helping to avoid over stripping of the natural oils. It contains no detergents, which can strip older alipidic skin. Some skin care companies add expensive conditioners to cleansing product. These conditioning ingredients are normally used in creams, lotions, and fluids that are in the form of day or night treatments. In other words, these products stay on the face for long periods of time. Many cosmetic scientists believe it is useless to include expensive conditioning ingredients in cleansers, because they simply do not stay on the face long enough to do any good. Soothing agents and agents that are meant to strengthen or weaken the action of the cleanser are the only types of these agents that should be added.

 

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